The focus on information processing and hypothesis formulation, consideration of alternative strategies and hypothesis testing have become the key foundations of systems thinking for 21st century learning in STEAM. Simon (1969) further points out that ‘The natural sciences are concerned with how things on the other hand is concerned with how things ought to be.’

Dewey (1910) proposes that problem-solving involves confusion/ doubt at the onset, followed by efforts to identify the problem, and the gaps which need to be addressed, associating these to prior knowledge (prior hypotheses and solutions), testing and reformulation of hypotheses, and finally assimilating the successful solution to the existing cognitive structure (schema).

Ausubel and Robinson (1971) agrees and highlights the importance of understanding the problem. Thereafter, the learner needs to generate alternative solutions using prior knowledge and infer based on prior knowledge. Acceptability of the solution needs to be tested. 

Problem-based Learning, Learning-by-Design (Kolodner, Camp, Crismond, Fasse, Gray, Holbrook, Puntambekar, & Ryan, 2003; Hmelo-Silver, 2004), creativity studies (Goel & Craw, 2005, Resnick, 2007; Peppler & Kafai, 2007), computational thinking (Wing, 2006) and design/ architectural patterns are also key theoretical foundations.


Continuing from the 1st workshop on Promoting cognitive access, processes and knowledge building towards deeper learning and creativity (Lee, Drew, Wang, Chen, 2017), and the second workshop on playfulness, this workshop invites the latest research and findings on the use of analogies (and storytelling) in encouraging interdisciplinary interactive cognition-knowledge building, towards deeper learning and creativity, either individual or collaborative (Wang, Kirschner & Bridges, 2016; Chen & Looi, 2014; Lee & Wong, 2014, Lee & Wong, 2018).

A half day mini-conference, this workshop caters to pre-school, primary and secondary education as well as higher institutions of learning. We are interested in

  • the theory, methods and assessment used to formulate perspectives, experimentations through model building for structured and/or ill-structured learning environments:

  • the theory, methods and assessment used to encourage design and co-design-synthesis for structured and/or ill-structured learning environments.

Expected outcomes

  • By enriching theoretical models, we hope to elicit critical success factors and barriers, new insights, which would help knowledge building/deeper learning and creativity. Applications can be in both formal and informal learning. Such findings will be especially helpful to developing countries.

3D Boxes



Paper format: Follow the ICCE paper format and guidelines. The main conference submission is via EasyChair. However, for this workshop, the submission is via e-mail. To submit, e-mail your paper to for review.


  • Ensure that you have adhered to the page limits for

    • full paper (8-10 pages),

    • short paper (5-6 pages) and

    • poster (2-3 pages).

  • All papers will be reviewed by at least TWO reviewers.


​​Important dates:

  • Submission deadline for workshop papers:  September 12, 2020 (extended)

  • Acceptance notification of workshop papers: September 18, 2020

  • Author registration: September 25, 2020

  • Final camera-ready version due for workshop papers: September 27, 2020